A1

Background:
Intimate partner violence (IPV) among adolescents is common worldwide, but our understanding of perpetration, gender differences and the role of social-ecological factors remains limited.

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Background
Manifest socio-economic differences are a trigger for internal migration in many sub-Saharan settings including Kenya. An interplay of the social, political and economic factors often lead to internal migration. Internal migration potentially has significant consequences on an individual’s economic growth and on access to health services, however, there has been little research on these dynamics. In Kenya, where regional differentials in population growth and poverty reduction continue to be priorities in the post MDG development a

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As efforts to address unmet need for family planning and contraception (FP/C) accelerate, voluntary use, informed choice and quality must remain at the fore. Active involvement of affected populations has been recognized as one of the key principles in ensuring human rights in the provision of FP/C and in improving quality of care.

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Background: The contraceptive prevalence rate in Mozambique was estimated as 11.3% in the last Demographic and Health Survey. The impact of family planning (FP) on women's health and on the reduction of maternal mortality is well known.

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Background: At the points where an infectious disease and risk factors for poor health intersect, while health problems may be compounded, there is also an opportunity to provide health services. Where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and alcohol consumption intersect include infection with HIV, onward transmission of HIV, impact on HIV and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) disease progression, and premature death. The levels of knowledge and attitudes relating to the health and treatment outcomes of HIV and AIDS and the concurrent consumption of alcohol need to be determined.

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Breast and cervical cancer are major threats to the health of women globally, particularly in low-income and middle-income countries. Radical progress to close the global cancer divide for women requires not only evidence-based policy making, but also broad multisectoral collaboration that capitalises on recent progress in the associated domains of women's health and innovative public health approaches to cancer care and control. Such multisectoral collaboration can serve to build health systems for cancer, and more broadly for primary care, surgery, and pathology. This Series paper explores the global health and public policy landscapes that intersect with women's health and global cancer control, with new approaches to bringing policy to action. Cancer is a major global social and political priority, and women's cancers are not only a tractable socioeconomic policy target in themselves, but also an important Trojan horse to drive improved cancer control and care.

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In his letter, W. Tjalma expresses concerns regarding cervical screening in Belgium before the age of 25 [1]. Having authored the European Guidelines for Quality Assurance in Cervical Cancer Screening and/or acted as advisor for the development of Belgian recommendations for cervical cancer prevention, we confirm that screening of women before the age of 25 years is generally not cost-effective and potentially harmful [2]. Although not recommended, the reality is that a relatively large proportion of younger women in Belgium do have Pap smears taken [3]. In the period 2002–2006, the proportion of women with a Pap smear within the previous 3 years, was 17% and 51%, in age groups 15–19 and 20–24, respectively [4].

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The 2016 WHO guidelines on antenatal care1 were published earlier this month and are widely welcomed because they are not only academically robust, but also relevant to end-users and patients. The guidelines cover antenatal care for normal pregnancies and have adopted a woman-centred, holistic approach to care. They cover nutritional interventions, maternal and fetal assessment, preventive measures, interventions for common physiological pregnancy symptoms, and health systems interventions to improve the use and quality of antenatal care.

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