Associations Between Vaginal Infections and Potential High-risk and High-risk Human Papillomavirus Genotypes in Female Sex Workers in Western Kenya


Purpose: Infection with and persistence of high-risk human papillomavirus (HR HPV) are the strongest risk factors for cervical cancer. Little is known about the prevalence and role of concurrent sexually transmitted infections (STIs) found in HPV-infected female sex workers (FSW) in Africa. This study purports to test our a priori hypotheses that STIs are associated with genotypes pertaining to the a-group species 9. The objectives were to determine the prevalence of bacterial vaginosis (BV), Trichomonas vaginalis, and Candida spp in FSW, the association between these STIs and the prevalence of any potential HR and HR HPV genotypes in FSWs.
Methods: A cross-sectional study design of 616 FSW from Western Kenya aged between 18 and 61 years during 2009-2015 using a peer recruitment sampling strategy. Inclusion criteria for the study entailed female sex and > 18 years of age and having engaged in transactional sex in exchange for money, goods, services, or drugs in the last 3 months. Women were excluded if they were pregnant, <18 years of age, had a history of cervical dysplasia or cancer, had current abnormal bleeding, or had a hysterectomy.
Findings: Of the FSW, 33.3% had HIV and 57.7% harbored a potential HR and HR HPV genotype. The 2 most prevalent potential HR and HR genotypes were HPV 16 (16.10%) and HPV 59 (12.20%). BV was the most common infection (48.3%), followed by Trichomonas vaginalis (31.4%) and Candida spp (19.9%). A multivariate regression revealed significant associations with both a-group 9 and 6; BV and HPV 58 (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 2.3; 95% CI, 1.0-5.2; P = 0.05), Trichomonas vaginalis and HPV 31 and HPV 35 (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.0-3.8; P = 0.04 and aOR = 1.8; 95% CI, 1.0-3.3, P = 0.05 respectively); and between Candida spp and HPV 53 (aOR = 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-4.0; P = 0.03) and 16 (aOR = 1.9; 95% CI, 1.1-3.3; P = 0.03). (C) 2016 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All rights reserved.

Author Keywords:bacterial vaginosis; Candida spp; female sex workers; HIV; potential-high-risk and high-risk HPV; Trichomonas vaginalis


Authors & affiliation: 
By:Menon, S (Menon, Sonia)[ 1,2 ] ; Vanden Broeck, D (Vanden Broeck, Davy)[ 1,3 ] ; Vanden Broeck, D (Rossi, Rodolfo)[ 4 ] ; Ogbe, E (Ogbe, Emilomo)[ 1 ] ; Harmon, S (Harmon, Stacy)[ 2 ] ; Mabeya, H (Mabeya, Hillary)[ 5,6 ] 1 ] Univ Ghent, Int Ctr Reprod Hlth, De Pintelaan 185 P3, B-9000 Ghent, Belgium [ 2 ] CDC Fdn, Atlanta, GA USA Show more [ 3 ] Univ Antwerp, Lab Cell Biol & Histol, Fac Med & Hlth Sci, Antwerp, Belgium Show more [ 4 ] Univ Antwerp, AMBIOR Appl Mol Biol Res Grp, Antwerp, Belgium Show more [ 5 ] Moi Univ, Eldoret, Kenya [ 6 ] Gynocare Fistula Ctr, Eldoret, Kenya
Published In: 
Clinical Therapeutics/Volume 38, Number 12, 2016
Publication date: 
Thursday, December 1, 2016