Violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity: a systematic review


 To assess the prevalence of physical and sexual violence motivated by perception of sexual orientation and gender identity in sexual and gender minorities.
 We searched nine databases without language restrictions for peer-reviewed and grey literature published from 2000 to April 2016. We included studies with more than 50 participants that measured the prevalence of physical and sexual violence perceived as being motivated by sexual orientation and gender identity or gender expression. We excluded intimate partner violence and self-harm. Due to heterogeneity and the absence of confidence intervals in most studies, we made no meta-analysis.
  We  included  76  articles  from  50  countries.  These  covered  74  studies  conducted  between  1995  and  2014,  including  a  total  of  202   607  sexual  and  gender  minority  participants.  The  quality  of  data  was  relatively  poor  due  to  a  lack  of  standardized  measures  and  sometimes small and non-randomized samples. In studies where all sexual and gender minorities were analysed as one population, the prevalence of physical and sexual violence ranged from 6% (in a study including 240 people) to 25% (49/196 people) and 5.6% (28/504) to 11.4% (55/484), respectively. For transgender people the prevalence ranged from 11.8% (of a subsample of 34 people) to 68.2% (75/110) and 7.0% (in a study including 255 people) to 49.1% (54/110).
 More data are needed on the prevalence, risk factors and consequences of physical and sexual violence motivated by sexual orientation  and  gender  identity  in  different  geographical  and  cultural  settings.  National  violence  prevention  policies  and  interventions  should include sexual and gender minorities.

Authors & affiliation: 
Karel Blondeel, a Sofia de Vasconcelos, b Claudia García-Moreno, b Rob Stephenson, c Marleen Temmerman a & Igor Toskin b a Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Ghent University, Campus UZ Gent, Building K3, 3rd floor, De Pintelaan 185, 9000 Gent, Belgium. b Department of Reproductive Health and Research, World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland. c Department of Health Behavior and Biological Sciences, School of Nursing, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, United States of America. Correspondence to Karel Blondeel (email:
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Publication date: 
Thursday, November 23, 2017