Publications

Background: There is robust clinical evidence to support offering early access to antiretroviral treatment (ART) to all HIV-positive individuals, irrespective of disease stage, to both improve patient health outcomes and reduce HIV incidence. However, as the global treatment guidelines shift to meet this evidence, it is still largely unknown if early access to ART for all (also referred to as "treatment as prevention" or " universal test and treat") is a feasible intervention in the resource-limited countries where this approach could have the biggest impact on the course of the HIV epidemics. The MaxART Early Access to ART for All (EAAA) implementation study was designed to determine the feasibility, acceptability, clinical outcomes, affordability, and scalability of offering early antiretroviral treatment to all HIV-positive individuals in Swaziland's public sector health system.

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For over 1·8 billion young people, access to contraceptives is key for health, rights, population and development, empowerment and equity, and for the planetary health of the future world. Adolescents make up at least a third of the population in most low-income and middle-income countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia,1 where approximately 2·5 million births occur annually to girls under the age of 16 years.

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In sub-Saharan Africa, substantial international funding along with evidence-based clinical practice have resulted in an unparalleled scale-up of access to antiretroviral treatment at a higher CD4 count. The role and timing of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in mediating cervical disease remains unclear. The aim of this article is to systematically review all evidence pertaining to Africa and identify research gaps regarding the epidemiological association between HAART use and the presence of premalignant/malignant cervical lesions.

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Genital herpes can be caused by two very similar viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 or HSV-2. These two HSV
types cannot be distinguished clinically, but genotyping is recommended in the first-episodes of genital herpes to
guide counselling and management. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the preferred diagnostic
method for HSV typing.

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Female genital cutting (FGC) is a major issue at the interplay of faith and health in development. The practice is in part faith-inspired, and has clear negative health impacts. The prevalence of FGC remains especially high in Egypt. This article reflects on some of the factors that lead to the perpetuation of the practice by analysing data from the 2014 Survey of Young People in Egypt. The focus is on whether religiosity, acceptance of traditional gender roles and discrimination, attitudes towards women's autonomy, and age at marriage affect attitudes towards FGC, controlling for other factors. The results suggest that all these factors do indeed play a role.

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Female genital cutting (FGC) is a major issue at the interplay of faith and health in development. The practice is in part faith-inspired, and has clear negative health impacts. The prevalence of FGC remains especially high in Egypt. This article reflects on some of the factors that lead to the perpetuation of the practice by analysing data from the 2014 Survey of Young People in Egypt.

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Genital herpes can be caused by two very similar viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 or HSV-2. These two HSV types cannot be distinguished clinically, but genotyping is recommended in the first-episodes of genital herpes to guide counselling and management.

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In Myanmar, postpartum haemorrhage is the leading cause of maternal mortality and contributes to around 30% of all maternal deaths. The World Health Organization recommends training and supporting auxiliary midwives to administer oral misoprostol for prevention of postpartum haemorrhage in resource-limited settings. However, use of misoprostol by auxiliary midwives has not formally been approved in Myanmar

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Determinants of male modern contraceptive use. An analysis of Demographic and Health Survey data of sexually active men in Kenya.

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